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Nursery Seedling Stock Descriptions

The Wisconsin Reforestation Program nursery grades and sells trees by size class. Trees are graded, using minimum size specification selected for each species, with the stem and root quality taken into consideration. Because of this, seedling size can be quite variable for some species. The minimum size for each species/age class is the smallest seedling deemed by reforestation staff to have a high probability of surviving and thriving after planting. In addition, some conifer, hardwood and shrub species are top-cut to approximately 14 inches in height to improve root-top ratios and facilitate shipping and handling.

Definitions

Age
  • 1-0: Planted as seed, harvested after one season of growth
  • 2-0: Planted as seed, harvested after two seasons of growth
  • 3-0: Planted as seed, harvested after three seasons of growth
  • Sdl: Mixture of 1-0 and 2-0 seedlings
Inventory
  • Adequate: Greater than 75% of projected demand
  • Limited: Between 50% and 75% of projected demand
  • Very limited: Less than 50% of projected demand
Terms
  • Caliper: Diameter of a seedling's stem
  • Stout: Caliper larger and height shorter than typical for specific species
  • Sturdy: Caliper larger than typical for specific species
  • Top-cut: Cut to approximately 14 inches tall to improve root-top ratios and facilitate shipping
  • Variable: Wide ranging
  • Vigorous: Nutrient loaded seedling
  • Well balanced: Equal sized roots and tops
  • Well rooted: Well developed tap and/or feeder and fine roots with ample root hairs
Conifer
Species Age Minimum Height (in.) Average Height (in.) Size Range Average Caliper (in.) Inventory Status Narrative
Cedar, White 3-0 5 12 5-20 3/16 Adequate Variably sized, sturdy seedlings. Ideal for machine planting.
Fir, Balsam 3-0 5 8 5-16 3/16 Adequate Variably sized, sturdy seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting.
Hemlock 3-0 5 8 5-12 3/16 Limited Variably sized. Ideal for hand planting.
Pine, Jack 1-0 4 7 4-10 1/8 Adequate Vigorous, well balanced seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Pine, Jack 2-0 8 12 8-14 1/4 Adequate Vigorous, well balanced seedlings. Ideal for machine planting.
Pine, Red 2-0 5 8 5-10 3/16 Adequate Vigorous, well balanced seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Pine, Red 3-0 8 12 8-14 1/4 Limited Variable, well rooted seedling. Ideal for machine planting.
Pine, White 2-0 4 7 4-10 1/8 Adequate Vigorous, sturdy seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Pine, White 3-0 8 14 8-18 5/16 Limited Vigorous, sturdy seedling. Ideal for machine planting.
Spruce, Black 2-0 5 10 5-16 3/32 Adequate Vigorous, variably sized. Ideal for hand planting.
Spruce, Black 3-0 8 20 8-24 1/4 Adequate Vigorous, sturdy seedlings. Ideal for machine planting.
Spruce, White 2-0 5 10 5-16 1/8 Adequate Vigorous, variably sized, sturdy seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Spruce, White 3-0 8 15 8-24 3/16 Very limited Variably sized, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting.
Tamarack 2-0 6 14 6-24 3/32 Adequate Vigorous, variable sized. Ideal for hand planting.
Hardwood
Species Age Minimum Height (in.) Average Height (in.) Size Range Average Caliper (in.) Inventory Status Comments
Note: "sdl" indicates species which are difficult or expensive to grow and process. They are sold at the 2-0 price, but may be 1-0 or 2-0 stock.
Aspen spp. Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Very limited Root pruned to 8 inches. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Basswood, American Sdl 6 12 6-14 5/16 Adequate Variable sized. Ideal for machine planting. Top cut.
Birch, River 1-0 8 12 8-14 1/8 Adequate Well-balanced seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Birch, White 1-0 8 14 8-14 3/16 Limited Vigorous. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Butternut Sdl 10 14 10-14 3/16 Very limited Large, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for machine planting. Top cut.
Cherry, Black 1-0 8 14 8-14 3/16 Adequate Variable sized, vigorous seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Cottonwood 1-0 10 14 10-14 3/16 Limited Vigorous. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Hackberry 1-0 6 12 6-16 1/8 Very limited Vigorous, sturdy, well balanced seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Hackberry 2-0 8 14 8-14 3/16 Very limited Variable sized, vigorous seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Hickory, Bitternut 2-0 5 12 5-14 3/16 Adequate Vigorous seedlings with strong taproot. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Maple, Red 2-0 6 12 6-14 3/16 Adequate Vigorous, variably sized. Well rooted. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Maple, Silver 1-0 8 14 8-14 1/8 Very limited Well rooted seedlings. Ideal for machine planting.
Maple, Sugar 2-0 6 14 6-14 3/16 Very limited Vigorous, variably sized. Ideal for hand or machine planting.
Oak, Bur 1-0 6 12 6-14 3/16 Very limited Vigorous, variably sized, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand planting.
Oak, Bur 2-0 8 14 8-14 5/16 Very limited Variable, sturdy seedlings. Best for machine planting. Top cut.
Oak, Red 1-0 8 14 8-14 3/16 Adequate Vigorous, well rooted seedling. Ideal for hand planting. Top cut.
Oak, Red 2-0 10 14 10-14 5/16 Adequate Sturdy seedling. Ideal for machine planting. Top cut.
Oak, Swamp White 1-0 8 14 8-14 1/4 Very limited Vigorous, sturdy, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Oak, White 2-0 10 12 10-14 1/4 Very limited Well balanced seedlings. Ideal for machine planting but can hand plant with care. Top cut.
Sycamore 2-0 10 14 10-14 3/16 Very limited Variably sized, vigorous seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Walnut, Black Sdl 10 14 10-14 1/4 Adequate Well rooted seedlings. Ideal for machine planting but can hand plant with care. Top cut.
Wildlife Shrubs
Species Age Minimum Height (in.) Average Height (in.) Size Range Average Caliper (in.) Inventory Status Comments
Note: All shrubs are sold at the same price, regardless of age class. Orders may contain a mixture of 1-yr and 2-yr seedlings
Buttonbush Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Adequate Vigorous, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Excellent pollen producer. Top cut.
Choke Cherry Sdl 8 12 8-14 1/8 Very limited Variably sized seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Dogwood, Red Osier Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Limited Well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Dogwood, Silky Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Limited Well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Elderberry Sdl 8 12 8-14 1/4 Adequate Vigorous, well rooted seedlings. Many multi-stemmed. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Hawthorn Sdl 8 12 8-14 1/8 Very limited Well balanced seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Hazelnut, American Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Adequate Well balanced, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Juneberry Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Very limited Well rooted seedlings. Some show spreading/crooked growth characteristic. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Ninebark Sdl 8 14 8-14 1/8 Limited Vigorous, well rooted seedlings. Many multi-stemmed. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Plum, American Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Limited Vigorous, variably sized, well rooted seedlings. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.
Winterberry Sdl 8 14 8-14 3/16 Very limited Well rooted, sturdy seedlings. Many multi-stemmed. Ideal for hand or machine planting. Top cut.