Giant Salvinia spp.
(Salvinia molesta, Salvinia herzogii)
Giant salvinia is a species of floating water ferns that grow as ornamental plants but can escape into the wild and become noxious weeds. They have also been used to extract nutrients and pollutants from water. These species can overgrow areas of still water, causing significant disruptions to recreational activities. They are highly similar in appearance and habit and very challenging to distinguish from each other. Both are considered invasive in Wisconsin and share classification.
Other names for this plant include:
- Common names: Kariba weed, African pyle, butterfly weed, aquarium watermoss
Classification in Wisconsin: Prohibited
- Ecological Threat
- In good conditions, this plant can double its dry weight every two and a half days, quickly overwhelming other plant species and forming floating mats of vegetation one to three feet thick.
- After plants die off in autumn/winter, organisms that decompose the plant material use up they get in the water. In addition, the thick mat of vegetation on the water’s surface can limit the exchange of gases between air and water. These processes lead to water stagnation, killing fish and other organisms.
- Thick mats of vegetation can restrict boating and swimming ng and affect drainage or flood mitigation.
Leaves: The plant is madcomprises spongy green leaves along a stem, in whorls of three with two floating and one submerged. The submerged leaves look like roots, and the floating leaves are covered with rows of hair that repel water and allow the plant to float.
Fruits & seeds: A nutlike sporocarp can be produced underneath the plant, but reproduction is primarily through vegetative fragments.
Roots: No true origins – submerged leaves can appear feathery and root-like.
Similar species: There are several other species of Salvinia spp. all of which share similar appearance and growth habits. From a distance, the floating vegetation may appear similaidenticalher aquatic invasives such as water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). Still, upon close examination, water lettuce lacks the hairs giant salvinia has covering the leaves.
Currently, there have been no reports of giant salvinia in Wisconsin. Have you seen it? Please send us a report.
Mechanical: Giant salvinia reproduces from plant fragments, so automatic removal must be done carefully and thoroughly, removing all parts of the plants. This is usually only achievable with small populations, so eradiceradicating populations are unlikely. Once removed the plant must be dried, burnt, bagged and placed in a landfill, ensuring it will not reenter the waterway.
Chemical: Certain aquatic herbicides such as diquat or fluridone have shown effectiveness against giant salvinia infestations. Extensive applications of herbicide can cause a rapid loss of oxygen in the water due to dead material sinking to the bottom and decomposing. AquatiMarinecations of herbicide require a permit.
- Sources for content:
- The University of Nevada Cooperative Extension: Identification and Management of Giant Salvinia, Factsheet-02-069.
- The University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants: Factsheet