An herbaceous to semi-woody perennial with deep roots that grow 6-12” tall. When leaves and stems are broken, white latex sap is released.
Other names for this plant include:
- Common names: graveyard spurge
- Scientific names: Galaarhoeus cyparissias; Tithymalus cyparissias
Classification in Wisconsin: Restricted
- Ecological Threat
- Introduced as an ornamental ground cover.
- Often found invading dry grasslands, pastures, agricultural fields, disturbed areas and right-of-ways.
- Potentially toxic to horses and cattle and may cause dermatitis in humans.
Leaves: Many narrow leaves about 1” long with pointed tips alternate along the stem. Just below the inflorescence, the leaves are in whorls—Hairless and bluish-green in color.
Flowers: Small, yellowish-green, surrounded by cup-shaped bracts that turn purple-red. Flowers are paired with 10-18 flower clusters forming at the top of stems. Bloom in late spring to through mid-summer. Flowers may persist through August.
Fruits & seeds: A green three-lobed capsule that contains 1-3 egg-shaped gray seeds that burst out at maturity.
Roots: Rhizomatic and woody with lateral root buds. It can extend up to 15’ deep in the soil and spread up to 35’ laterally. Root fragments can give rise to new plants.
Similar species: Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula; invasive) has similar flowers but is more robust and taller with fewer and longer leaves. Leafy spurge is also listed as a prohibited invasive species in Wisconsin.
- Mechanical: Continual cutting and digging are needed to exhaust the root reserves and are not recommended due to extensive root systems.
Chemical: Foliar spray of glyphosate or aminopyralid.
- Sources for content:
- Czarapata, Elizabeth; Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest: an illustrated guide to their identification and control. The University of Wisconsin Press. 2005. Pg. 105
- USDA Forest Service, Fire Effects Information System (FEIS): Cypress spurge
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England: Cypress spurge