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Wisconsin Groundwater Research and Monitoring Program

Wisconsin Groundwater Coordinating Council

Wisconsin is recognized as a national leader in groundwater research, which is appropriate given how uniquely important this resource is for public health, the economy and the environment in this state. For example:

  • Wisconsin leads the nation in the number of public water systems that rely on groundwater.
  • Over 97% of agricultural irrigation water and more than one third of the water used for commercial and industrial purposes come from groundwater supplies.
  • Many ecosystems in Wisconsin are strongly dependent on groundwater availability and groundwater quality.

Joint Solicitation for Groundwater Research and Monitoring Proposals

Wisconsin's reputation for groundwater research is largely due to the well-established joint solicitation process for groundwater research and monitoring projects. This approach streamlines proposal writing and the review process and improves communication among agencies and researchers. Discussions of some of the benefits derived from these projects and interagency collaboration are presented in the highlights of GCC-funded research section of the GCC Report to the Legislature.

The Joint Solicitation takes place annually. The call for proposals is sent to potential investigators in the fall and evaluation of proposals occurs until researchers are notified in spring. Work begins the following July 1.

Groundwater research projects funded during FY 2024
Title Investigators Contract period Funding agency
Impact of solar farms on groundwater recharge Steven P Loheide II (PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 DNR
The role of water table fluctuations on PFAS mobility in groundwater Christopher Zahasky (PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 DNR
Evaluation of the potential for arsenic release in two cones of depression in northeastern Wisconsin Erin Berns-Herrboldt (PI, UW-Green Bay) 7/1/23 - 6/30/24 DNR
Long-term threat of geogenic contaminants to water quality and quantity in the Midwestern Cambrian Ordovician Aquifer System Matthew Ginder-Vogel (PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 UWS
An experimental investigation on the leaching of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from contaminated soil Shangping Xu (PI, UW-Milwaukee), Yin Wang (Co-PI, UW-Milwaukee), Erin Berns-Herrboldt (Co-PI, UW-Green Bay) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 UWS
Risk from pathogens and exposure to antibiotic resistance genes in private wells in southwest WI Maureen Muldoon (PI, UW-Madison), Tucker Burch (AI, USDA), Joel Stokdyk (AI, USGS), Joe Bonnell (AI, UW-Madison) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 UWS
Understanding the quality and rate of recharge on uncultivated landscapes under natural and enhanced conditions Michael Cardiff (PI, UW-Madison), David J. Hart (Co-PI, WGNHS) 7/1/23 - 6/30/25 DATCP
Groundwater research projects funded during FY 2023
Title Investigators Contract period Funding agency
Biomanipulation of groundwater flooding Loheide, Steven, UW-Madison; Potter, Kenneth (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/22 - 6/30/24 UWS
Aligning the Wisconsin Idea on water: Interpreting public perspectives and values Cardiff, Michael, UW-Madison; Genskow, Ken (Co-PI, UW-Madison); Shaw, Bret (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/22 - 6/30/24 UWS
Characterization of disperse PFAS sources to groundwater using targeted and non-targeted analyses Remucal, Christina, UW-Madison; Shafer, Martin (Co-PI, WSLH and UW-Madison) 7/1/22 - 6/30/24 DNR
Characterization of PFAS leachability from metal shredder residue Hicks, Andrea, UW-Madison 7/1/22 - 6/30/24 DNR
Neonicotinoid groundwater leaching potential from potato and management impacts at field scale Arriaga, Francisco, UW-Madison; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Siemering, Geoffrey (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/22 - 6/30/24 DATCP
Groundwater research projects funded during FY 2022
Title Investigators Contract period Funding agency
Impact of injectable particulate carbon on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) transport in groundwater Xu, Shangping, UW-Milwaukee; Yin Wang, (Co-PI, UW-Milwaukee) 7/1/21 - 6/30/23 DNR
On-farm research and local partnership to reduce nitrate loading from agriculture in Pepin County Radatz, Amber, UW-Madison; Matt Ruark, (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Eric Cooley (AI, UW-Madison Division of Extension) 7/1/21 - 6/30/23 DATCP
Advancing the use of nitrate findings to inform groundwater protection and improvement strategies Turyk, Nancy, UW-Madison Division of Extension; Jennifer McNelly, (Co-PI, Portage County) 7/1/21 - 6/30/22 DATCP
Measurement of bacterial transport and immobilization in variably saturated geologic materials of WI Zahasky, Christopher, UW-Madison; Eric Roden (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Vy Le (AI, UW-Madison) 7/1/21 - 6/30/23 UWS
Data-driven groundwater depth and risk forecasting in the Central Sands region of WI for sustainable management Huang, Jingyi, UW-Madison; Ankur Desai (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/21 - 6/30/23 UWS
Assessment of biochar application to reduce nitrate leaching through agricultural vegetative treatment areas Sanford, Joseph, UW-Platteville 7/1/21-6/30/23 UWS
Groundwater research projects funded during FY 2021
Title Investigators Contract period Funding agency
Investigation of PFAS adsorption by selected Wisconsin aquifer sediments Yin Wang, UW-Milwaukee; Shangping Xu (Co-PI, UW-Milwaukee) 7/1/20-6/30/22 DNR
Geophysics-informed transport and shallow bedrock topography in Northeast and Southcentral Counties in Wisconsin Dante Fratta, UW-Madison; David Hart (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Michael Cardiff (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Francisco Arriaga (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Jingyi Huang (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/20-6/30/22 DATCP, DNR
Neonicotinoid contaminants in Wisconsin groundwater: relationships to landscape cropping system Russell Groves, UW-Madison; David Hart (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Michael Parsen (Co-PI, UW-Madison), Benjamin Bradford (AI, UW-Madison) 7/1/20-6/30/22 DATCP
Investigating in-season cover crops for reducing nitrate loss to groundwater below potatoes Kevin Masarik, UW-Stevens Point; Jacob Prater (Co-PI, UW-Stevens Point) 7/1/20-6/30/22 UWS
Valuing groundwater quality: A cost function analysis of Wisconsin water utilities James Price, UW-Milwaukee 7/1/20-6/30/22 UWS
Source to sink evaluation of phosphorus in the hydrologic system in Wisconsin: Implications for lake eutrophication Sarah Vitale, UW-Eau Claire; Anna Baker (Co-PI, USGS Upper Midwest Water Science Center), J. Brian Mahoney (Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire) 7/1/20-6/30/21 UWS
Correlating bedrock folds and fractures to arsenic detection in drinking water, southeast Wisconsin Eric Stewart, UW-Madison; Esther Stewart (Co-PI, UW-Madison) 7/1/20-6/30/21 UWS
Investigating sources of salinity associated with Ra and Sr in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system of eastern WI Matthew Ginder Vogel, UW-Madison; Patrick Gorski (Co-PI, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene), Sean Scott (AI, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene) 7/1/20-6/30/22 UWS
Groundwater research projects funded during FY 2020
Title Investigators Contract period Funding agency
Characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of the Rountree Formation in southwestern Wisconsin Eric C. Carson, UW-Madison/WGNHS 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 DNR
Water security in Armenia, WI: Modeling for informed decision-making in a nitrate-impacted watershed Michael Cardiff, UW-Madison; Stephanie DeVries, WGNHS 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 DNR
Impact of changing snow cover and frozen ground regimes on groundwater recharge Steven P. Loheide, UW-Madison 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 UWS
Microbially-mediated oxidation of trace element-bearing sulfide minerals in sandstones of Trempealeau County, WI Eric Roden, UW-Madison; Matthew Ginder-Vogel, UW-Madison; James Zambito, Beloit College; Lisa Haas, UW-Madison 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 UWS
Assessment of the source and mobility of phosphorus in the hydrologic system in western Wisconsin Sarah A. Vitale, UW-Eau Claire; J. Brian Mahoney, UW-Eau Claire; Anna C. Baker, USGS 7/1/19 – 6/30/20 DNR
Integrative monitoring of neonicotinoid insecticides in baseflow-dominated streams on the Central Sand Plain William M. DeVita, UW-Stevens Point 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 DATCP
Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides on aquatic organisms Tisha King-Heiden, UW-La Crosse; Elisabeth Harrahy, UW-Whitewater 7/1/19 – 6/30/21 DATCP
Aerial thermal imaging applied to Wisconsin 's groundwater, springs, thin soils, and slopes David J. Hart, UW-Madison/WGNHS; Susan K. Swanson, Beloit College; J. Elmo Rawling, UW-Madison/WGNHS 7/1/19 – 6/30/20 UWS, DATCP
All groundwater research projects funded FY 1985 to FY 2024

Final Reports

Information on specific projects is available:

Funding sources and purposes of monitoring or research

UWS Groundwater Research

The UWS, through its UW–Madison Water Resources Institute (WRI), has received funding since FY 90 for groundwater research. Projects may be of a fundamental or applied nature on selected aspects of groundwater research in the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences or law. Projects have been co–funded with DNR, Commerce, DATCP and the National Institutes for Water Resources program (US Geological Survey).

DNR Groundwater Monitoring and Research

The DNR has been funding groundwater “management practice monitoring” projects since FY 86. The intent of these studies, funded through the Groundwater Account of the Environmental Fund, was to identify appropriate management practices to reduce the impacts of potential sources of contamination. In recent years, the DNR has used funds from alternative state and federal sources, and has targeted funds at specific issues of concern, including arsenic, emerging contaminants (viruses, antibiotics) and groundwater quantity. Several of these projects have been co–funded with DATCP, Commerce and/or UWS.

DATCP Pesticide Research

From 1989 to 2002, DATCP funded research on pesticide issues of regulatory importance. This funding came from fees paid by pesticide manufacturers to sell products in Wisconsin. Several of these projects have been co–funded with DNR and/or UWS. Starting in FY 03, these funds have not been available for new research.

DSPS Private Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Research

While part of the Department of Industry, Labor, and Human Relations (DIHLR), the Division of Safety & Buildings received an appropriation from 1990 to 1993 to fund research on alternatives to current private sewage–system technology. In 1994, when the appropriation expired, the division continued the program with funding generated through plan review and licensing fees under the Department of Commerce through 2002. In total, eight projects were funded. Two projects were co–funded with DNR and UWS. The division is now part of the Department of Safety and Professional Services (DSPS).

Example of GRAC-funded project on Microbial Source Tracking.