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Publications and reports

research books

The Office of Applied Science (OAS) produces a variety of publications and other useful documents throughout our work. Our findings appear in peer-reviewed scientific journals, as well as reports for wildlife and fisheries management, legislative briefings and customer resources.

In the list below, current and former employees of the Office of Applied Sciences appear in bold. An asterisk denotes graduate and post-doctoral students who were mentees of OAS staff.



Fowler, D. N., J. M. Winiarski, C. D. Pollentier, and R. C. Gatti. 2024. The influence of landscape composition and configuration on breeding waterfowl pair abundance in Wisconsin. Wildlife Society Bulletin e1504.

H. N. Inzalaco, E. E. Brandell, S. P. Wilson, M. Hunsaker, D. R. Stahler, K. Woelfel, D. P. Walsh, T. Nordeen, D. J. Storm, S. S. Lichtenberg & W. C. Turner. 2024. Detection of prions from spiked and free-ranging carnivore feces. Sci Rep 14, 3804.

Burton, A.C., Beirne, C., Gaynor, K.M. et al (Anhalt-Depies, C., Stenglein, J.L., Whipple, L.). 2024. Mammal responses to global changes in human activity vary by trophic group and landscape. Nat Ecol Evol.


Barta, M.E., Sass, G.G., Reed, J.R., Cichosz, T.A., Shultz, A.D., Luehring, M. and Feiner, Z.S. 2024. Lagging spawning and increasing phenological extremes jeopardize walleye (Sander vitreus) in north-temperate lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. Lett.




Clare, John D. J.*Zuckerberg, BenjaminLiu, NanfengStenglein, Jennifer L.Van Deelen, Timothy R.Pauli, Jonathan N., and Townsend, Philip A.2023. A Phenology of Fear: Investigating Scale and Seasonality in Predator–Prey Games between Wolves and White-Tailed DeerEcology e4019.

Inzalaco, H.N., Bravo-Risi, F., Morales, R., Walsh, D.P., Storm, D.J., Pedersen, J.A., Turner, W.C., Lichtenberg, S.S. Ticks harbor and excrete chronic wasting disease prions. Sci Rep 13, 7838 (2023).

Fowler, D. N., J. M. Winiarski, C. D. Pollentier, and R. C. Gatti. 2024. The influence of landscape composition and configuration on breeding waterfowl pair abundance in Wisconsin. Wildlife Society Bulletin e1504.

Ketz, A. C.*, Storm, D. J., Barker, R. E., Apa, A. D., Oliva-Aviles, C., Walsh, D. P. (2023). Assimilating ecological theory with empiricism: Using constrained generalized additive models to enhance survival analyses. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 952– 967.

Margenau, Lydia L.S., Russell, Robin E., Hanrahan, Alexander T., Roberts, Nathan M., Price Tack, Jennifer, L., Storm, Daniel J. (2023) Survival and cause-specific mortality of coyotes in Wisconsin, Journal of Mammalogy; 

Stenglein, J. L., E. B. Donovan, C. D. Pollentier, T. R. Peltier, S. M. Lee, A. B. McDonnell, L. H. Kardash, D. M. MacFarland, and S. D. Hull. 2023. Comparison of in-person and remote camera lek surveys for prairie grouse (Tympanuchus spp.). Wildlife Society Bulletin 47:e1499.

Van den Bosch, Merijn, Kellner, Kenneth F., Beyer, Dean E., Erb, John D., MacFarland, David M., Norton, D. Cody, Price Tack, Jennifer L., Roell, Brian J., and Belant, Jerrold L.. 2023. “ Gray Wolf Range in the Western Great Lakes Region under Forecasted Land Use and Climate Change.” Ecosphere 14(8): e4630.

Van den Bosch, Merijn, Kellner, K., Gantchoff, M., Patterson, B., Barber‐Meyer, S., Beyer, D., Erb, J., Isaac, E., MacFarland, D., Moore, S., Norton, C., Petroelje, T., Price Tack, J., Roell, B., Schrage, M., and Belant, J. (2023). Habitat selection of resident and non-resident gray wolves: implications for habitat connectivity. Sci Rep 13, 20415 (2023)

von Furstenberg, R., Vayer, V. R., Larson, L. R., Nils Peterson, M., Lee, K. J., Stevenson, K., Ahlers, A. A., Anhalt-Depies, C., Bethke, T., Clark, B., et al. 2023. Evaluating impacts of R3 workshops for first-time hunters at universities across the United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 47:e1482.


Coulter, D. P., Feiner, Z. S., Coulter, A. A., & Diebel, M. W. (2022). Using individual-based models to develop invasive species risk assessments by predicting species habitat suitability. Journal of Applied Ecology, 59, 3083–3097.

Dassow, C.D, Sass, G.G.Shaw, S.L., Feiner, Z.S., Nieman, C., and Jones, S.E. (2023). Dispensation in fish recruitment driven by context-dependent interactions with another predator. Fisheries Research.

Elwer, B.M., J.A. VanDeHey, S.L. Shaw, L.W. Sikora, J.T. Mrnak, and G.G. Sass. (2023). Evaluation of survival and cost to harvestable age of stocked fall fingerling walleye (Sander vitreus) in Northern Wisconsin Lakes. Fisheries Research 266(2023) 106758

Feucht, L.M, L.W. Sikora, G.P. Shay, G.G. Sass, and J.T. Mrnak. (2023). Seasonal habitat use of yellow perch Perca flavescens in a north-temperate lake. Aquaculture, Fish, and Fisheries 3:380-387.

Hühn, D., D. C. Gwinn, S. L. Shaw, J. Also, M. S. Allen, T. Pagel, C. Skov and R. Arlinghaus. (2023). Density- and size-dependent mechanisms that modulate the outcome of stocking in a naturally recruiting freshwater piscivore (northern pike, Esox Lucius): a replicated whole-lake experiment. Fisheries Research.

Krabbenhoft, C.A., Ludsin, S.A., Marschall, E.A., Budnik, R.R., Almeida, L.Z., Cahill, C.L., Embke, H.S.*, Feiner, Z.S., Schmalz, P.J., Thorstensen, M.J., Weber, M.J., Wuellner, M.R. and Hansen, G.J.A. (2023). Synthesizing Professional Opinion and Published Science to Build a Conceptual Model of Walleye Recruitment. Fisheries

Sass, Greg G., LaMarche, Samuel T., Feiner, Zachary S. (2023). Do angler catch and harvest rates differ between open water and ice anglers in Wisconsin? Fisheries Research, 263,106678,

Shaw, S.L., Lawson, Z., Gerbyshak, J., Nye, N. and Donofrio, M. (2023). Catch-and-Release Angling Effects on Lake Sturgeon in Wisconsin, USA. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 43: 451-464.

Shay, G.P., G.G. Sass, and J.T. Mrnak. (2023). Response of yellow perch to water level fluctuations in north-temperate lakes. Aquaculture, Fish, and Fisheries.

Solakas, M.A., Feiner, Z.S., Al-Chokachy, R., Budy, P.E., DeWeber,J.T., Sarvala, J., Sass, G.G., Tolentino, S.A., Walsworth, T.E., and Jensen. O.P. (2023). Shrinking body size and climate warming: many freshwater salmonids do not follow the rule. Global Change Biology.

Stegens, E. D.D. Wiegman, L.M. Angeloni. J.R. Baylis, R.A.S. Laroche, S.P. Newman, S.P. Egan, G.G. Sass, K.L. Weinersmith. (2023). A spring population survey impacts nest site fidelity but not reproductive timing in male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). North American Journal of Fisheries Management (in press).

Ward, N.K, A.J. Lynch, E.A. Beever, K. Bouska, H. Embke*, J. Kocik, D.J. Lawrence, J. Limpensel, M.R. Magee, B.M. Maitland, O. McKenna, J.M. Morton, J.D. Muehlbauer, R. Newman, D.C. Oliver, H.M. Rantala, G.G. Sass, A. Shultz, L.M. Thompson, J. Wilkening. (2023). Reimagining large river management using the resist-accept-direct (RAD) framework in the Upper Mississippi River. Ecological Processes             



Anhalt-Depies, Christine, Berland, M., Rickenbach, M.G., Bemowski, R., Rissman, A.R. (2022). Use of latent profile analysis to characterize patterns of participation in crowdsourcing. Behavior & Information Technology,

Brandell Ellen E.*, Storm D.J., Van Deelen T.R., Walsh, D.P., Turner, W.C. (2022) A call to action: Standardizing white-tailed deer harvest data in the Midwestern United States and implications for quantitative analysis and disease management. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10.

Burgener, Kate R., Lichtenberg, S.S., Lomax, A., Storm, D.J., Walsh, D.P., Pedersen, J.A. (2022) Diagnostic testing of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by RT-QuIC using multiple tissues. PLoS ONE 17(11): e0274531

Gilbert, Neil A.*, Stenglein, J.  L., Van Deelen, T. R., Townsend, P. A., & Zuckerberg, B. (2022). Behavioral flexibility facilitates the use of spatial and temporal refugia during variable winter weather. Behavioral Ecology, 33(2), 446-454.

Gilbert Neil A.*, Stenglein, J.L., Pauli, J.N., Zuckerberg, B. (2022) Human disturbance compresses the spatiotemporal niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119, 52.

Gilbertson, M.L.J.*, Ketz, A.C.*, Hunsaker, M.*, Jarosinski, D., Ellarson, W., Walsh, D.P., Storm, D.J., Turner, W.C. Agricultural land use shapes dispersal in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Mov Ecol 10, 43 (2022).

Hanley, B. J., Carstensen, M., Walsh, D. P., Christensen, S. A., Storm, D. J., Booth, J. G., Guinness, J., Them, C. E., Ahmed, M. S., & Schuler, K. (2022). Informing Surveillance through the Characterization of Outbreak Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer. Ecological Modelling. 471.

Kays, Roland, Cove, M.V., Diaz, J., Todd, K., Bresnan, C., Snider, M., Anhalt-Depies,C.Stenglein, J.L., et al. (2022). SNAPSHOT USA 2020: A Second Coordinated National Camera Trap Survey of the United States during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ecology 103( 10): e3775.

McGraw, A.M., Bronson, D.R., Pearson, T., Storm, D.J., (2022). Habitat and weather influence body condition in white-tailed deer, Wisconsin, USA. The Journal of Wildlife Management; e22176.

M. van den Bosch, D.E. Beyer, J.D. Erb, M.G. Gantchoff, K.F. Kellner, D.M. MacFarland, D.C. Norton, B.R. Patterson, J.L. Price Tack, B.J. Roell, J.L. Belant. (2022). Identifying potential gray wolf habitat and connectivity in the eastern USA. Biological Conservation. 273.


Brandt, E.J.*, Z.S. Feiner, A.W. Latzka, and D.A. Isermann. (2022). Similar environmental conditions are associated with Walleye and Yellow Perch recruitment success in Wisconsin lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

Broda, S.*, Z.S. Feiner, J.T. Mrnak*, S.L. Shaw, and G.G. Sass. (2022) Black crappie influences on walleye natural recruitment in northern Wisconsin lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management; 42(5), 1202-1214. 

Coulter, D.P., Z.S. Feiner, A.A. Coulter, and M.W. Diebel. (2022). Using individual-based models to develop invasive species risk assessments by predicting species habitat suitability. Journal of Applied Ecology. 

Dassow, C.J., A.W. Latzka, A.J. Lynch, G.G. Sass, R.W. Tingley III, and C. Paukert. (2022). RAD decision-making tool: an application to walleye (Sander vitreus) in Wisconsin. Fisheries Management and Ecology

Doll, J., and Z.S. Feiner. (2022). Think like a Bayesian and avoid pitfalls from our frequentist past. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 15: 1-11.

Embke, H.S.*, S.R. Carpenter, D.A. Isermann, G. Coppola, T.D. Beard, A.J. Lynch, G.G. Sass, Z.S. Feiner, and M.J. Vander Zanden. (2022). Resisting ecosystem transformation through an intensive whole-lake fish removal experiment. Fisheries Management and Ecology.

Feiner, Z.S., A.D. Shultz, G.G. Sass, A. Trudeau*, M.G. Mitro, C.J. Dassow, A.W. Latzka, D.A. Isermann, B.M. Maitland*, J.J. Homola, H.S. Embke*, and M. Preul. (2022). Resist-Accept-Direct (RAD) considerations for climate change adaptation in fisheries: the Wisconsin experience. Fisheries Management and Ecology 29: 346-363.

Feiner, Z.S., H.A. Dugan, N.R. Lottig, G.G. Sass, and G.A. Gerrish. (2022). A perspective on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of phenological variability in north-temperate lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Koenig, L.D., Dembkowski, D.J., Hansen, S.P., Tsehaye, I., Paoli, T.J., Zorn, T.G., Isermann, D.A. (2022) Diet composition and overlap for adult walleye, lake whitefish, and yellow perch in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. J. Gt. Lakes Res.  

Lant, M.J.*, D.H. Ogle, Z.S. Feiner, and G.G. Sass. (2022). A comparison of fish catch rates among local, non-local, and nonresident anglers of three northern Wisconsin lakes. Fisheries Research

Mosley, C., C. Dassow, J. Caffarelli, A. Ross, G.G. Sass, S.L. Shaw, C.T. Solomon, and S.E. Jones. (2022). Species differences, but not habitat, influence catch rate hyperstability across a recreational fishery landscape. Fisheries Research; 255 

Mrnak, J.T*., L. Sikora*, M.J. Vander Zanden, and G.G. Sass. (2022). Applying panarchy theory for aquatic invasive species management: a case study on invasive rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture.  

Sass, G.G., S.L. Shaw, J.A. Gorne, D. Godard, N. Nietlisbach, D. Giehtbrock, A. Sikora*, G. Muench, L. Tate, L. Wawronowicz, and H.-M. Hsu. (2022). Female sex ratio bias in extended growth hatchery walleye Sander vitreus produced in Wisconsin. North American Journal of Aquaculture 84:267-274.

Sass, G.G., S.L. Shaw, C.C. Fenstermacher, A.P. Porreca, and J.J. Parkos. (2022). Structural Habitat in Lakes and Reservoirs: Physical and Biological Considerations for Implementation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management  

Schleppenbach, B.T.*, G. Matzke, S.L Shaw, and G.G. Sass. (2022). Aquatic community responses to the cessation of invasive Eurasian watermilfoil chemical treatments in a north-temperate, USA lake. Fishes

Scribner, K., Brenden, T., Elliott, R., Donofrio, M., Bott, K., Kanefsky, J., Homola, J., Tsehaye, I., Stott, W., and Bence, J., Baker, E., and Auer, N. (2022). Compositions of lake sturgeon mixtures in Lake Michigan: hierarchical spatial heterogeneity and evidence of improving recruitment in Wisconsin spawning populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Shaw, S. L., Z. Lawson, J. Gerbyshak, N. Nye and M. Donofrio. (2022). Catch-and-release angling effects on Lake Sturgeon in Wisconsin, USA. Northern American Journal of Fisheries Management  

Sikora, L.W.*, J.T. Mrnak*, R. Henningsen, J.A. VanDeHey, and G.G. Sass. (2022). Demographic and life history characteristics of black bullheads Ameiurus melas in a north temperate USA lake. Fishes

Stuart, C.E.*, Doll, J.C., Forsythe, P.S., Feiner, Z.S., (2022). Estimating population size and survival of adult northern pike (esox lucius) in Lower Green Bay. Fisheries Management and Ecology; 29(3), 298-309. Editor's Choice Article.

Trudeau, A., B. Beardmore, G.A. Gerrish, G.G. Sass, and O.P. Jensen. (2022) Social Fish-Tancing in Wisconsin: The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on statewide license sales and fishing effort in northern inland lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.  

Wszola, L.S.*, Z.S. Feiner, C.J. Chizinski, J.B. Poletto, and J.P. Delong. (2022). Fishing regulations, sexual dimorphism, and the life history of harvest. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Zebro, L.R., J.T. Mrnak*, S.L. Shaw, S.R. Chipps, and G.G. Sass. (2022) Density-dependent, cannibalism, and environmental influences on juvenile walleye survivorship in northern Wisconsin lakes. Fisheries Management and Ecology; 29(6), 897-910



Bauder, J. M., Ruid, D., Roberts, N. M., Kohn, B., & Allen, M. L. (2021). Effects of translocation on survival of nuisance bears. Animal Conservation.

Cove, M. V., Stenglein, J. L., Anhalt-Depies, C., et. al. (2021). SNAPSHOT USA 2019: a coordinated national camera trap survey of the United States. Ecology 102(6).

Gantchoff, M. G., Erb, J. D., MacFarland, D. M., Norton, D. C., Price Tack, J. L., Roell, B. J., & Belant, J. L. (2021). Potential distribution and connectivity for recolonizing cougars in the Great Lakes region, USA. Biological Conservation 257.

Gilbert, N. A.*, Pease, B. S., Anhalt-Depies, C., Clare, J. D. J.*, Stenglein, J. L., Townsend, P. A., Van Deelen, T. R., Zuckerberg, B. (2021). Integrating harvest and camera trap data in species distribution models. Biological Conservation 258

Gilbert, N. A.*, Clare, J. D. J.*, Stenglein, J. L., Zuckerberg, B. (2021). Abundance estimation of unmarked animals based on camera-trap data. Conversation Biology, 0(0), 1-12.

Larson, L.R., Peterson, M. N., Furstenberg, R. V., Vayer, V. R., Anhalt-Depies, C., et al. (2021). The future of wildlife conservation funding: What options do U.S. college students support? Conservation Science and Practice.

Liu, N., Garcia, M., Singh, A., Clare, J. D. J.*, Stenglein, J. L., Zuckerberg, B., Kruger, E. L., & Townsend, P. (2021). Trail camera networks provide insights into satellite-derived phenology for ecological studies. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 97

Norton, A. S., Storm, D. J., & Van Deelen, T. R. (2021). White-Tailed Deer, Weather and Predation: a New Understanding of Winter Severity for Predicting Deer Mortality. Journal of Wildlife Management.

Palumbo, M. D., Straub, J. N., Al-Saffar, M. A., Soulliere, G. J., Fowler, D. N., et al. (2021). Multi-scale waterfowl habitat conservation planning in Wisconsin, USA. Landscape Ecology.

Pollentier, C. D., Hardy, M. A, Lutz, R. S., Hull, S. D., & Zuckerberg, B. (2021). Gobbling across landscapes: Eastern wild turkey distribution and occupancy–habitat associations. Ecology and Evolution, 1–23.

Pollentier, C. D., Hull, S. D., & MacFarland, D. M. (2021). Sensitivity of multiple vital rates for Ruffed Grouse in the Upper Great Lakes Region. Ornithological Applications, 123(1)

Townsend P., Clare, J. D. J.*, Liu, N., Stenglein, J. L., Anhalt-Depies, C., Van Deelen, T. R., Gilbert, N.A.*, et al. (2021). Snapshot Wisconsin: networking community scientists and remote sensing to improve ecological monitoring and management. Ecological Applications, 31(8).

Vayer, V. R., Larson, L. R., Peterson M. N., Anhalt-Depies, C., et. al. (2021). Diverse University Students Across the United States Reveal Promising Pathways to Hunter Recruitment and Retention. Journal of Wildlife Management, 1-14

White, H. B., Batcheller, G. R., Boggess, E. K., Brown, C. L., Butfiloski, J. W., Decker, T. A., Erb, J. D., Fall, M. W., Hamilton, D. A., Hiller, T. L., Hubert, G. F. Jr., Lovallo, M. J., Olson, J. F., & Roberts, N. M. (2021). Best management practices for trapping furbearers in the United States. Wildlife Monographs, 207(1), 3-59.


Ackiss, A.S., M.R. Magee, G.G. Sass, K. Turnquist, P.B. McIntyre, and W.A. Larson. (2021). Genomic and environmental influences on resilience in a cold-water fish near the edge of its range. Evolutionary Applications 14:2794-2814.

Erickson, R.A., Kallis, J.L., Coulter, A.A., Coulter, D.P., MacNamara, R., Lamer, J.T., Bouska, W.W., Irons, K.S., Solomon, L., Stump, A.J., Weber, M.J., Brey, M.K, Sullivan, C.J., Sass, G.G., Garvey, J.E., & Glover, D.C. (2021). Demographic rate variability of two invasive species along an invasion gradient: bighead and silver carp along an invasion gradient. Journal of Fisheries and Wildlife Management.

Feiner, Z. S., Latzka, A. W., & Wolter, M. H. (2021). What to Exploit When You’re Exploiting: Angling Rates and Size Selection Responses to Changing Bag Limits. In Harvest of Fish and Wildlife (pp. 221-234).

Sikora, L.W.*, VanDeHey, J.A., Sass, G.G., Matzke, G., & Preul, M. (2021). Fish community changes associated with bullhead removals in four northern Wisconsin lakes. Proceedings of the Catfish 2020; 3rd International Catfish Symposium. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

Massie, D.L., Hansen, G.J.A., Li, Y., Sass, G.G., & Wagner, T. (2021). Do lake-specific characteristics mediate the temporal relationship between walleye growth and warming water temperatures? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.     

Mrnak. J.T*, Sikora, L.W.*, Vander Zanden, M.J., Hrabik, T.R., & Sass, G.G. (2021). Hydroacoustic surveys underestimate yellow perch population size: the importance of considering habitat use. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

Sass, G.G., Feiner, Z.S., & Shaw, S.L. (2021). Empirical evidence for dispensation in freshwater fisheries. Fisheries 46(6), 266-276.

Trudeau, A.*, Dassow, C. J., Iwicki, C. M., Jones, S. E., Sass, G. G., Solomon, C. T., van Poorten, B. T., & Jensen, O. P. (2021) Estimating fishing effort across the landscape: A spatially extensive approach using models to integrate multiple data sources. Fisheries Research233.

Erdman, B., M.G. Mitro, J.D.T. Griffin, D. Rowe, D. Kazyak, K. Turnquist, M. Siepker, L. Miller, W. Stott, M. Hughes, B. Sloss, M. T. Kinnison, C. C. Wilson, and W. Larson. (2021). Broadscale population structure and hatchery introgression of midwestern brook trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society

Sass, G.G., S.L. Shaw, and K.M. Renik. (2021). Celebrating 75 years of the Northern Highland Fishery Research Area: the past, present and future. Fisheries 47(2):55-67.

Sass, G.G., S.L. Shaw, L.W. Sikora*, M. Lorenzoni, and M. Luehring. (2021). Plastic abundance and demographic responses of walleye to elevated exploitation in a north-temperate lake. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 42(3):535-548.

S.L. Shaw, K.M. Renik, and G.G. Sass. (2021). Environmental influences on walleye Sander vitreus and muskellunge Esox masquinongy angler catch in Escanaba Lake 2003 – 2015. PLoS One 16(9):e0257882.    

Smith, Q.C., G.G. Sass, T.R. Hrabik, S.L. Shaw, and J.K. Raabe. (2021). Sportfish behavioral responses to a littoral coarse woody habitat addition in a north-temperate lake. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 31:454-468.



Allen, M. L.*, Roberts, N. M., & Bauder, J. M. (2020). Relationships of catch-per-unit-effort metrics with abundance vary depending on the sampling method and population trajectory. Plos one15(5).

Meunier, J., Nixon, K., Gorby, T. A., Swaty, R. L., Martin, K. J., & D’Amato A. W. D. (2020). Understanding uncertainty in the broad-scale mapping of historical vegetation in the Great Lakes Region. Natural Areas Journal, 40(1), 72-85.

Meunier, J., & Shea, M. E. (2020). Applying the usual rules to an unusual ecological situation: Fire rotation in Great Lakes Pine Forests. Forest and Ecology Management, 472.

Roberts, N. M., Lovallo, M. J., & Crimmins, S. M. (2020). River otter status, management, and distribution in the United States: Evidence of large-scale population increase and range expansion. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management11(1), 279-286.

Tabak, M. A., Norouzzadeh, M. S., Wolfson, D. W., Newton, E. J., Stenglein, J. L., et al. (2020). Improving the accessibility and transferability of machine learning algorithms for identification of animals in camera trap images: MLWIC2. Ecology and Evolution, 10(19).


Bootsma, M. L., Miller, L., Sass, G. G., Euclide, P. T., & Larson, W. A. (2020). The ghosts of propagation past: haplotype information clarifies the relative influence of stocking history and phylogeographic processes on the contemporary population structure of walleye (Sander vitreus). Evolutionary Applications.

Dassow, C. J., Ross, A. J., Jensen, O. P., Sass, G. G., van Poorten, B. T., Solomon, C. T., & Jones, S. E. (2020). Experimental demonstration of catch hyperstability from habitat aggregation, not effort sorting, in a recreational fishery. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences77(4), 762-769.

Feiner, Z. S., Latzka, A. W., Wolter, M. H., Eslinger, L. D., & Hatzenbeler, G. R. (2020). Assessing the rage against the machines: Do ice anglers’ electronics improve catch and harvest rates? Fisheries45(6), 327-333.

Feiner, Z. S., Wolter, M. H., & Latzka, A. W. (2020). “I will look for you, I will find you, and I will [harvest] you”: Persistent hyperstability in Wisconsin’s recreational fishery. Fisheries Research230.

Hermus, J. W., Gorne, J. A., Shaw, S. L., & Sass, G. G. (2020). Growth of known-age muskellunge stocked into northwestern Wisconsin lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 40, 1344-1350.

Larson, W. A., Isermann, D. A., & Feiner, Z. S. (2020). Incomplete bioinformatic filtering and inadequate age and growth analysis lead to an incorrect inference of harvested-induced changes. Evolutionary Applications, 0(0), 1-12.

Nieman, C. L., Iwicki, C., Lynch, A. J., Sass, G. G., Solomon, C. T., Trudeau, A., & van Poorten, B. (2020). Creel Surveys for Social-Ecological-Systems Focused Fisheries Management. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 1-20.

Renik, K. M., Jennings, M. J., Kampa, J. M., Lyons, J., Parks, T. P., & Sass, G. G. (2020). Status and distribution of cisco (Coregonus artedi) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in inland lakes of Wisconsin. Northeastern Naturalist27(3), 469-484.

Sass, G. G. & Shaw, S. L. (2020). Catch-and-release influences on inland recreational fisheries. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture28(2), 211-227.

Shaw, S. L. & Sass, G. G. (2020). Evaluating the relationship between yearling walleye, Sander vitreus, electrofishing catch‐per‐unit‐effort and density in northern Wisconsin lakes. Fisheries Management and Ecology.

Solomon, C. T., Dassow, C. J., Iwicki, C. M., Jensen, O. P., Jones, S. E., Sass, G. G., Trudeau, A., van Poorten, B. T., & Whittaker, D. (2020). Frontiers in modeling social-ecological dynamics of recreational fisheries: A review and synthesis. Fish and Fisheries, 21, 973–991.

Trudeau, A., Dassow, C. J., Iwicki, C. M., Jones, S. E., Sass, G. G., Solomon, C. T., van Poorten, B. T. & Jensen, O. P. (2020). Estimating Fishing effort across the landscape: A spatially extensive approach using models to integrate multiple data sources. Fisheries Research, 233.

VanderBloemen, S. N., Gorne, J. A., Sass, G. G., & Shaw, S. L. (2020). Influence of cisco (Coregonus artedi, Lesueur) on muskellunge (Esox masquinongy, Mitchill) mean length, population size structure, and maximum size in northern Wisconsin lakes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology36(2), 159-167.



Allen, M. L.*, Roberts, N. M., Farmer, M. J., & Van Deelan, T. R. (2019). Decreasing available bobcat tags appear to have increased success, interest, and participation among hunters. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 24, 349-362. 

Anhalt-Depies, C., Stenglein, J. L., Zuckerberg, B., Townsend, P. M. & Rissman, A. R. (2019). Trade-offs and tools for data quality, privacy, transparency, and trust in citizen science. Biological Conservation, 238

Clare, J. D. J.*, Townsend, P. A., Anhalt-Depies, C., Locke, C., Stenglein, J. L., Frett, S., Martin, K. J. Singh, A., Van Deelen, T. R., & Zuckerberg, B. (2019). Making inferences with messy (citizen science) data: When are data accurate enough and how can they be improved? Ecological Applications, 0(0).

Day, C. C., McCann, N. P, Zollner, P. A., Gilbert, J. H., & MacFarland, D. M. (April 2019). Temporal plasticity in habitat selection criteria explains patterns of animal dispersal. Behavioral Ecology, 30(2).

Ketz, A. C.*, Storm, D. J., & Samuel, M. (2019). Chronic wasting disease and implications for cervid populations. CAB Reviews, 14(38), 1-15.

Locke, C. M., Anhalt-Depies, C. M., Frett, S., Stenglein, J. L., Cameron, S., Malleshappa, V., Peltier, T., Zuckerberg, B., & Townsend, P. A. (2019). Managing a large citizen science project to monitor wildlife. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 43(1).

Meunier, J., Bronson, D., Scanlon, K. & Gray, R. (2019). Effects of oak wilt (Bretziella fagacearum) on post-harvest Quercus regeneration. Forest Ecology and Management, 432, 575-581.

Meunier, J., Holoubek, N. S., Brown, P. M. & Sebasky, M. (2019). Re-evaluating pattern and process to understand resilience in a transitional mixed conifer forest. Ecology, 0(0).

Meunier, J., Holoubek, N. S., & Sebasky, M. (2019). Fire regime characteristics about physiography at local and landscape scales in Lake States Pine Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 454

Willi, M., Pitman, R. T., Cardoso, A. W., Locke, C., Swanson, A., Boyer, A., Veldthuis, M. & Fortson, L. (2019). Identifying animal species in camera trap images using deep learning and citizen science. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 10(1), 80-91. 


Bailey, C. T., Noring, A. M., Shaw, S. L., & Sass, G. G. (2019). Live versus artificial bait influences on walleye (Sander vitreus) angler effort and catch rates on Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1993-2015. Fisheries Research, 219

Dauwalter, D. C. & Mitro, M. G. (2019). Climate change, recent floods, and an uncertain future. Special Publication of the 11th Annual Driftless Area Symposium. 

Dieterman, D. J. & Mitro, M. G. (2019). Stream habitat needs for brown trout and brook trout in the Driftless area. Special Publication of the 11th Annual Driftless Area Symposium.

Embke, H. S., Rypel, A. L., Carpenter, S. R., Sass, G. G., Ogle, D., Cichosz, T., Joseph, H., Essington, T. E., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2019). Production dynamics reveal hidden overharvest of inland recreational fisheries. PNAS, 116(49), 24676-24681.

Feiner, Z. S., Shaw, S. L., & Sass, G. G. (2019). Influences of female body condition on recruitment success of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Wisconsin lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 76

Lamer, J. T., Ruebush, B. C., McClelland, M. A., Epifanio, J. M., & Sass, G. G. (2019). Body condition (Wr) and reproductive potential of bighead and silver carp hybrids: post-zygotic selection in the Mississippi River basin. Ecology and Evolution, 9(16).

Magee, M. R., Hein C. L., Walsh, J. R., Shannon, P. D., Vander Zanden, M. J., Campbell, T. B., Hansen, G. J. A., Hauxwell, J., LaLiberte, G. D., Parks, T. P., Sass, G. G., Swanston, C. W. & Janowiak, M. K. (2019). Scientific advances and adaptation strategies for Wisconsin lakes facing climate change. Lake and Reservoir Management, 35(4), 364-381.

Mitro, M. G., Lyons, J. D., Stewart, J. S., Cunningham, P. K., & Griffin, J. D. (2019). Projected changes in brook trout and brown trout distribution in Wisconsin streams in the mid-twenty-first century in response to climate change. Hydrobiologia, 840(1), 215-226.

Noring, A. M., Sass, G. G., Midway, S. R., VanDeHey, J. A., Raebe, J. K., Isermann, D. A., Kampa, J. M., Parks, T. P., Lyons, J. & Hennings, M. J. (2019). Pelagic forage versus abiotic factors as drivers of walleye growth in northern Wisconsin lakes. Advances in Limnology.

Raabe, J. K., VanDeHey, J. A., Zentner, D. L., Cross, T. K. & Sass, G. G. (2019). Walleye inland lake habitat: considerations for successful natural recruitment and stocking in North Central North America. Lake and Reservoir Management, 36(4), 335–359.

Sass, G. G., Shaw, S. L., Rooney, T. P., Rypel, A. L., Raabe, J. K., Smith, Q. C., Hrabik, T. R., & Toshner, S. T. (2019). Coarse woody habitat and glacial lake fisheries in the Midwestern USA: Knowns, unknowns, and an experiment to advance our knowledge. Lake and Reservoir Management, 35(5).

Shaw, S. L., Sass, G. G. & Eslinger, L. D. (2019). Effects of angler harvest on adult muskellunge growth and survival in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1956-2016. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 39(1).

Tingley III, R. W., Paukert, C., Sass, G. G., Jacobson, P. C., Hansen, G. J., Lynch, A. J., & Shannon, P. D. (2019). Adapting to climate change: Guidance for managing inland glacial lake fisheries. Lake and Reservoir Management, 35(3), 435-452.



Allen, M. L.*, Norton, A. S., Stauffer, G. Roberts, N. M., Luo, Y., Li, Q., MacFarland, D., & Van Deelen, T. R. (2018). A Bayesian state-space model using age-at-harvest data for estimating the population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in Wisconsin. Scientific Reports, 8(1).

Allen, M. L.*, Roberts, N. M., & Van Deelen, T. R. (2018). Hunter selection for larger and older male bobcats affects annual harvest demography. Royal Society Open Science, 5(10).

Henderson, R. A., Meunier, J., & Holoubek, N. S. (2018). Disentangling effects of fire, habitat, and climate on an endangered prairie-specialist butterfly. Biological Conservation, 218, 41-48.

Stenglein, J. L., Wydeven, A. P., & Van Deelen, T. R. (2018). Compensatory mortality in a recovering top carnivore: Wolves in Wisconsin, USA (1979-2013). Oecologia, 187(1).

Walsh, D. P., Storm, D. J., Van Deelen, T. R., & Heisey, D. M. (2018). Using expert knowledge to incorporate uncertainty in cause-of-death assignments for modeling of cause-specific mortality. Ecology and Evolution, 8(1), 509-520.


Brenden T. O., Tsehaye, I., Bence, J. R., Kanefsky, J., & Scribner, K. T. (2018). Indexing recruitment for source populations contributing to mixed fisheries by incorporating age in genetic stock identification models. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Collins, S. F., Detmer, T. M., Nelson, K. A., Nannini, M. A., Sass, G. G., & Wahl, D. H. (2018). The release and regulation of rotifers: Examining the predatory effects of invasive juvenile common and bighead carp. Hydrobiologia.

Dembkowski, D. J., Isermann, D. A., & Sass, G. G. (2018). Short-term mortality and retention associated with tagging age-0 walleye using passive integrated transponders (PITs) in the absence of anesthesia. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 9(2).

Donofrio, M. C., Scribner, K. T., Baker, E. A., Kanefsky, J., Tsehaye, I., & Elliot, R. F. (2018). Telemetry and genetic data characterize lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) breeding ecology and spawning site fidelity in the Green Bay Rivers of Lake Michigan. Journal of Applied Ichthyology

Johnson‐Bice, S. M., Renik, K. M., Windels, S. K., & Hafs, A. W. (2018). A review of beaver–salmonid relationships and history of management actions in the western Great Lakes (USA) region. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 38(6), 1203-1225.

Mitro, M. G. & Griffin, J. (2018). Distribution, prevalence, and maximum intensity of the ectoparasitic copepod Salmincola cf. edwardsii in brook trout in Wisconsin streams. Journal of Parasitology, 104(4), 628-638. 

Mrnak, J. T., Shaw, S. L., Eslinger, L. D., Cichosz, T. A., & Sass, G. G. (2018). Characterizing the angling and tribal spearing walleye fisheries in the Ceded Territory of Wisconsin, 1990-2015. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 38(6).

Parker, J., Cao, Y., Sass, G. G., & Epifanio, J. (2018). Large river fish functional diversity responses to improved water quality over 28 years. Ecological Indicators, 88, 322-331.

Rypel, A. L., Goto, D.*, Sass, G. G., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2018). Eroding productivity of walleye populations in northern Wisconsin lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 75(12).

Sass, G. G., Gaeta, J. W., Allen, M. S., Suski, C. D., & Shaw, S. L. (2018). Effects of catch and release angling on a largemouth bass (Micropterus salmonides) population in a north temperate lake, 2001-2005. Fisheries Research, 204

Sass, G. G. & Shaw, S. L. (2018). Walleye population responses to experimental exploitation in a northern Wisconsin lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 147(5).

Shaw, S. L.Sass, G. G., & VanDeHay, J. A. (2018). Maternal effects better predict walleye recruitment in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin 1957-2015: implications for regulations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 75(12).

Scribner, K., Tsehaye, I., Brenden, T., Stott, W., Kanefsky, J., & Bence, J. (2018). Hatchery strain contributions to emerging wild lake trout populations in Lake Huron. Journal of Heredity, 1-14.



Allen, M. L.*, Kohn, B., Roberts, N. M., Crimmins, S.*, & Van Deelen, T. R. (2017). Benefits and drawbacks of determining reproductive histories for black bears (Ursus americanus) from cementum annuli techniques. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 95(12).

Kirby, R.*, MacFarland, D. M. & Pauli, J. N. (2017). Consumption of intentional food subsidies by a hunted carnivore. Journal of Wildlife Management

Peterson, B. E.*, Storm, D. J., Norton, A. S., & Van Deelen, T. R. (2017). Influence of landscape on the dispersal of yearling male white-tailed deer in Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management 81(8).

Warbington, C. H.*, Van Deelen, T. R., Norton, A. S., Stenglein, J. L.Storm, D. J. & Martin, K. J. (2017). Cause-specific neonatal mortality of white-tailed deer in Wisconsin, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management, 81(10).


Carpenter, S. R., Brock, W. A., Hansen, G. J. A., Hansen, J. F., Hennessy, J. M., Isermann, D. A., Pederson, E. J., Perales, K. M., Rypel, A., Sass, G. G., Tunney, T. D., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2017). Defining a safe operating space for recreational fisheries. Fish and Fisheries

Eslinger, L. D., Sass, G. G.Shaw, S. L., & Newman, S. P. (2017). Muskellunge population responses to angler catch-and-release practices in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1987-2014. American Fisheries Society Symposium 85. 

Haglund, J. & Mitro, M. G. (2017). Age validation of brown trout in Driftless area streams in Wisconsin using otoliths. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 

Moody-Carpenter, C. J., Sass, G. G., Frankland, L. D., Bollinger, E. K., & Colombo, R. E. (2017). Demographics and interstate management implications for flathead catfish in the Lower Wabash River, Illinois and Indiana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 37(6), 1265-1273.

Nelson, K. A., Collins, S. F., Sass, G. G., & Wahl, D. H. (2017). A response-surface examination of competition and facilitation between native and invasive juvenile fishes. Functional Ecology.

Pedersen, E. J.*, Goto, D.*, Gaeta, J. W., Hansen, G. J. A., Sass, G. G., Vander Zanden, M. J., Cichosz, T. A., & Rypel, A. L. (2017). Long-term growth trends in northern Wisconsin walleye populations under changing biotic and abiotic conditions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 75(5), 733-745.

Sass, G. G., Rypel, A. L., & Stafford, J. D. (2017). Inland fisheries habitat management: Lessons learned from wildlife ecology and a proposal for change. Fisheries, 42(4), 197-209.

VanMiddlesworth, T. D., McClelland, N. N., Sass, G. G., Casper, A. F., Spier, T. W., & Lemke, M. J. (2017). Fish community succession and biomanipulation to control two common aquatic ecosystem stressors during a large-scale floodplain lake restoration. Hydrobiologia, 804, 73-88.



Clare, J. D. J.*, Linden, D. W., Anderson, E. M. & MacFarland, D. M. (2016). Do the antipredator strategies of shared prey mediate intraguild predation and mesopredator suppression? Ecology and Evolution, 6(12), 3884-3897.

Norton, A. S.*, Storm, D. J., Watt, M. A.Jacques, C. N.Martin, K. & Van Deelen, T. R. (2016). Left truncation criteria for survival analysis of white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 80(7).

Samuel, M. D. & Storm, D. J. (2016). Chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: infection, mortality, and implications for heterogeneous transmission. Ecology.

Walleser, L. R., Crimmins, S. M.*, & Roberts, N. M. (2016). Estimating the age of male gray wolves (Canis lupus) using baculum measurements. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 130(3), 212-215.


Gilbert, S. J & Sass, G. G. (2016). Trends in a northern Wisconsin muskellunge fishery: Results from a countywide angling contest, 1964-2010. Fisheries Management and Ecology

Haglund, J. M., Isermann, D. A., & Sass, G. G. (2016). Walleye population and fishery responses after elimination of legal harvest on Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 36, 1315-1324.

Liss, S. A., Lamer, J. T., Sass, G. G., & Suski, C. D. (2016). Physiological consequences of hybridization: early generation backcrossing decreases performance in invasive bigheaded carp. Journal of Freshwater Ecology  

Mitro, M. G. (2016). Brook trout, brown trout and ectoparasitic copepods Salmnicola edwardsii species interactions as a proximate cause of brook trout loss under changing environmental conditions. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society

Tsehaye, I., Brenden, T. O., Bence, J. R., Liu, W., Scribner, K. T., Kanefsky, J., Bott, K., & Elliott, R. F. (2016). Combining genetics with age/length data to estimate temporal changes in year-class strength of source populations contributing to mixtures. Fisheries Research, 173, 236-249.

Tsehaya, I., Roth, B. M., & Sass, G. G. (2016). Exploring optimal walleye exploitation rates for northern Wisconsin Ceded Territory lakes using a hierarchical Bayesian age-structured model. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 73, 1-21.

VanMiddlesworth, T. D., McClelland, N. N., Sass, G. G., Casper, A. F., Spier, T. W., & Lemke, M. J. (2016). Fish community succession and biomanipulation to control two common aquatic ecosystem stressors during a large-scale floodplain lake restoration. Hydrobiologia.

VanMiddlesworth, T. D., Sass, G. G., Ray, B. A., Spier, T. W., Lyons, J. D., McClelland, N. N., & Casper, A. F. (2016). Food habits and relative abundances of native piscivores: implications for controlling common carp. Hydrobiologia



Browne-Nuñez, C.*, Treves, A., MacFarland, D. M., Voyles, Z.*, & Turng, C. (2015). Tolerance of wolves in Wisconsin: A mixed-methods examination of policy effects on attitudes and behavioral inclinations. Biological Conservation

Bryant White, H., Decker, T., O'Brien, M. J., Organ, J. F., & Roberts, N. M. (2015). Trapping and furbearer management in North American wildlife conservation. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 72(5), 756–769.

Clare, J. D. J.*, Anderson, E. M., & MacFarland, D. M. (2015). Predicting bobcat abundance at a landscape scale and evaluating occupancy as a density index in central Wisconsin. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 79(3).

Clare, J. D. J.*, Anderson, E. M., MacFarland, D. M., & Sloss, B. L. (2015). Comparing the costs and detectability of bobcats using scat-detecting dog and remote camera surveys in central Wisconsin. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 39(1), 210-217.

Olson, E. R., Van Deelen, T. R., Wydeven, A. P., Ventura, S. J., & MacFarland, D. M. (2015). Characterizing wolf-human conflicts in Wisconsin, USA. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(4).


Bailey, C. T., Ray, B. A., & Sass, G. G. (2015). Growth of black crappies iWesto to west Tennessee impoundments with implications for a reduced minimum length limit. Journal of the Tennessee Academic of Science, 90(3-4), 65-69. 

Brenden, T. O., Bence, J. R., Liu, W., Tsehaye, I., & Scribner, K. T. (2015). Comparison of the accuracy and consistency of likelihood-based estimation routines for genetic stock identification. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 817-827.

Brenden, T. O., Scribner, K. T., Bence, J. R., Tsehaye, I., Kanefsky, J., Vandergoot, C. S., & Fielder, D. G. (2015). Contributions of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair walleye populations to the Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, recreational fishery: evidence from genetic stock identification. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 35, 567-577.

Gaeta, J. W., Hrabik, T. R., Sass, G. G., Roth, B. M., Gilbert, S. J., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2015). A whole-lake experiment to control invasive rainbow smelt (Actinoperygii, Osmeridae) via overharvest and a food web manipulation. Hydrobiologia, 746, 433-444.

Hansen, J. F., Sass, G. G., Gaeta, J. W., Hansen, G. A., Isermann, D. A., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2015). Largemouth bass management in Wisconsin: Intraspecific and interspecific implications of abundance increases. American Society Society Symposium, 82, 193-206.  

Lamer, J. T., Ruebush, B. C., Arbieva, Z. H., McClellend, M. A., Epifanio, J. M., & Sass, G. G. (2015). Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin. Molecular Ecology.

Levengood, J. M., Soucek, D. J., Sass, G. G., & Epifanio, J. M. (2015). Interspecific and spatial comparisons of perfluorinated compounds in bighead and silver carp in the Illinois River, Illinois, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Rypel, A. L., Goto, D., Sass, G. G., & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2015). Production rates of walleye and their relationship to exploitation in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1965–2009. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 72, 1-11.

Tsehaye, I., Jones, M. L., Irwin, B. J., Fielder, D. G., Breck, J. E., & Luukkonen, D. R. (2015). Natural Resource Modeling, 28(3). 

Technical Reports

The Office of Applied Science also keeps a historical record of past research-related bulletins and reports published by the DNR. These publications fall into three distinct types: Technical bulletins, research reports and management findings.

All of these publications can be found in this collection, and descriptions of each type of publication can be found below.

Technical Bulletins

Technical bulletins are peer-reviewed (both internally and externally) and tend to be lengthy and/or multidisciplinary in scope. They may be portions of larger studies, methodological improvement studies, comprehensive literature reviews or implications papers geared towards broad policy or management decisions. Their readership tends to be national/international.

Research Reports

Research reports are generally narrower in scope, and written for state/regional policy and management decisions. They might be a report on how well a new method/technique performed or a narrowly-focused literature review. Research reports are also peer-reviewed (internally with optional external review). 

Management Findings

Management findings are typically for fast reporting and tend to be focused on results with narrow implications. Interim and preliminary reports, such as the status of a species or results from a monitoring effort, both fall under this category. These findings are written with a local/state focus and are peer-reviewed internally.