Wolves in Wisconsin
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service removed gray wolves from the federal endangered species list on January 4, 2021, returning management authority to state agencies. The Wisconsin DNR has successfully managed gray wolves for decades and will continue to do so in accordance with the laws of our state and the best science available. The DNR is planning for a wolf harvest season in the fall of 2021 and working towards completing a 10 year wolf management plan that will guide future management decisions for wolves in Wisconsin.
The DNR will continue to partner with USDA-Wildlife Services to address wolf conflicts in Wisconsin. If you suspect wolves in the depredation of livestock, pets or hunting dogs, or if wolves are exhibiting threatening or dangerous behavior, contact USDA-Wildlife Services staff immediately. In northern Wisconsin, call 1-800-228-1368 or 715-369-5221. In southern Wisconsin, call 1-800-433-0663 or 920-324-4514.
2019–20 Wolf count data summaries available
The 2019–20 Wolf monitoring report is available here and previous year's reports can be located under the “Reports” tab.
Information for Volunteer Trackers
Trackers can find survey materials and maps under the "Wolf Monitoring" section below and within the "Volunteer Tracking Program" section. Any questions about the tracking program can be directed to Tracking Program Manager Shannon McNamara.
Frequently asked questions
- How many wolves are there in Wisconsin? Where do they live?
Scroll down to find a general overview of wolf numbers and range in the state. You can also find more detail in our annual wolf monitoring report available at the link above or further down the page under the “Population Monitoring Reports” section.
- Will there be a hunting/trapping season on wolves next year (Fall 2021)?
State law mandates the DNR implement a wolf hunting and trapping season whenever wolves are managed by the state. Therefore, we are working towards a wolf harvest season to begin on November 6th, 2021 and including all the process associated with holding a season. These include tribal consultations, public input, running population models to help determine quotas, and an application and license drawing period.
- Does delisting mean wolves are now unprotected?
No. Wolves are protected by state law. However, state law does allow wolves to be killed in defense of property as well as during a regulated hunting and trapping season.
- Did the DNR release wolves into Wisconsin?
No. Unlike the famous wolf reintroductions in Yellowstone National Park, wolves were never released into Wisconsin by humans. After wolves were given protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, existing wolf populations in northern Minnesota rebounded and naturally expanded their range into northern Wisconsin.
- Are wolves native to Wisconsin?
Yes. It’s estimated that there may have been 3,000-5,000 wolves in Wisconsin prior to European settlement. For more information on the history of wolves, check out the "Wolves in Wisconsin" section below.
- How big are wolves? What do they eat?
For an overview of wolf biology, including diet, check out the "Biology" section below.
- Do wolves reduce deer numbers?
The relationship between wolves and deer is complex. Generally, winter weather and human harvest, especially antlerless harvest, have greater impacts on deer populations than predation over the long term. Deer herds in northern Wisconsin have increased significantly in recent years, even with an established wolf population, suggesting that wolves do not limit deer population growth. However, deer may alter their behavior, movements and/or habitat use in response to the presence of wolves.
Wolves are skilled at identifying vulnerable prey, and tend to target individuals that are old, young, sick or otherwise weakened. Hence, deer removed by wolves are less likely to survive and less likely to produce offspring than the deer that remain. The average age of white-tailed deer killed by wolves was 6.5 years in Minnesota, for example, whereas the average age of does taken by hunters was 2.5 years in this same area. This targeting of vulnerable animals serves to reduce the impact of wolves on long-term deer population dynamics. It has also been suggested that wolves might reduce CWD transmission rates and prevalence by removing sick individuals.
An interesting and more detailed article on the relationship between deer hunting and wolves was published by a Minnesota biologist in 2009.
- Are wolves dangerous to people?
Just like any wild animal, wolves tend to avoid humans. Verified cases of healthy wolves attacking humans are extremely rare, and there have been no documented cases in Wisconsin.
Most incidents of wolf aggression toward people have involved wolves that have become habituated to people or involved domestic dogs. To avoid wolves becoming habituated to people, it is important to never feed or approach wolves in the wild. For more information on living with wolves as neighbors, please see the “Living With Wolves” document under the “Wolf Conflicts” section below.
- What should I do if I encounter a wolf?
Wolves generally avoid people and rarely pose a threat to human safety. However, if you do encounter a wolf, do not approach, feed or in any way attempt to interact with the wolf and it will generally move away on its own. If the wolf does not move off on its own, do not run as this may initiate a chase response by the wolf. Try to maintain eye contact with the wolf, act aggressively, shout and back away slowly.
- Can I shoot a wolf to protect my livestock or pet?
State law allows, on private land, the landowner, lessee or occupant of the land, or any other person with permission of the landowner, lessee or occupant to shoot and kill wolves in the act of killing, wounding or biting a domestic animal. Shootings must be reported to the department within 24 hours and the carcass of the wolf shall be turned over to the department.
For more information on dealing with nuisance wolf issues, check out the "Wolf Conflicts" section below. If you suspect wolves in the depredation of livestock or pets, or if wolves are exhibiting threatening or dangerous behavior, please contact USDA-Wildlife Services staff from one of the numbers below.
Wolves in Wisconsin
- Wolves Today
The 2019 -2020 midwinter count estimated that there is a minimum of 1,034 - 1,057 individual wolves and 256 packs in Wisconsin. The count is conducted in winter when snow cover allows efficient tracking, and it represents the low point in the annual population cycle. Wolf numbers increase each year following the spring breeding period. The complete 2019-2020 Wolf Monitoring Report is available under the “Reports” tab above.
The increase in wolf numbers over the past 30 years has generally been accompanied by range expansion within the state. In portions of the northern and central forest, where wolves have been established for many years, territorial behavior has served to keep wolf numbers fairly stable. In recent years, range expansion across the state has been minimal, suggesting that wolves likely occupy all suitable habitat in Wisconsin.
- History of Wolves in Wisconsin
Prior to European settlement, 3,000-5,000 wolves are believed to have been found throughout Wisconsin. During the 1800s, unregulated hunting by settlers extirpated bison, elk, caribous and moose in the state and nearly eliminated white-tailed deer as well.
As prey species became scarce, wolves increasingly began to feed on livestock. This led the state legislature to pass a bounty on wolves in 1865. The state bounty on wolves persisted until 1957 when wolves were classified by the state as a protected species. Elimination of bounties, however, made little difference for wolves as they had already been exterminated across most of Wisconsin; by the 1950s only a few wolves remained in the far northern part of the state.
As a result of habitat loss, declines in prey populations and unregulated harvest, wolf populations declined until the species was declared extirpated from Wisconsin in 1960. Wide-spread declines among wildlife species eventually led to greater public scrutiny of unregulated harvests and increased support for conservation measures. The culmination of this changing ethic was the passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, which enacted significant protections for species at risk of extinction. In 1974, the value of gray wolves was recognized by the federal government via its inclusion on the list of endangered species.
- Recovery: Back from the brink
After federal protections were established for wolves, the wolf population in Minnesota began to increase and expand their range. In the mid to late 1970s, this expansion led to wolves naturally recolonizing northwest Wisconsin and the first breeding pack confirmed in Douglas County in 1978.
While initial population growth was slow, by the mid-1990s Wisconsin's wolf population began to increase and expand steadily. Wolves in the Western Great Lakes region surpassed federal recovery goals in the winter of 1999-2000, when Wisconsin and Michigan had a combined total of 100 wolves for 5 consecutive years, and the population in Minnesota remained stable or continued to grow.
Wolves would not be able to thrive if it was not for the support of the people that live near them every day. Thankfully, studies show that Wisconsinites generally value and are in favor of wolves (Public attitude of wolves (draft))
- Wolf Management in Wisconsin
The recovery of wolves in the Western Great Lakes region stands as a testament to the cooperation of federal, state and tribal agencies, as well as other conservation partners working together to support wolf recovery. When evaluating the history of wolf management in Wisconsin, it is important to understand that conservation decisions are made at both federal and state levels, though federal law supersedes state law.
- Federal Classification
Wolves in the Western Great Lakes region surpassed federal recovery goals in the winter of 1999-2000, when Wisconsin and Michigan had a combined total of 100 wolves for 5 consecutive years, in addition to the population in Minnesota being stable or growing (Wolf Recovery Plan).
However, the federal status of wolves has changed a number of times over the past two decades. Most recently, gray wolves were removed from the federal endangered species list by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on Jan. 4, 2021. The graphic above provides a chronology of federal classification for gray wolves in Wisconsin.
- State Classification & Management
As Wisconsin's wolf population met and exceeded recovery goals in the 1990s, biologists recognized the need to develop a state-driven approach to management that would support a healthy and persistent wolf population, and identify goals for wolf management in the state. DNR staff worked closely with partners to develop the 1999 Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan and later added an addendum in 2007. This document has successfully guided recovery efforts for many years.
- Taxonomy & Physical Description
Gray wolves (Canis lupus), also referred to as timber wolves, are the largest wild members of the canid (dog) family. Their close relatives, coyotes (Canis latrans) are sometimes called brush wolves but are not true wolves. Wolves in Wisconsin can weigh between 50-100 pounds. Males tend to be larger than females averaging 75 and 60 pounds respectively.
Wolves have many color variations but tend to be buff-colored tans grizzled with gray and black (although they can also be black or white). In winter, their fur becomes darker on the neck, shoulders and rump. Their ears are rounded and relatively short, and the muzzle is large and blocky. Wolves generally hold their tail straight out from their body or point them downward.
Wolves are primarily carnivorous. A study in the early 1980s showed that the diet of Wisconsin wolves was comprised of 55% white-tailed deer, 16% beavers, 10% snowshoe hares and 19% other small game (mice, squirrels, muskrats, etc). Deer comprise over 80% of a wolf's diet throughout the year, but beavers become more important during the spring and fall when beavers are dispersing and spend more time on land, which makes them more vulnerable and easier to catch.
In the winter, when beavers are in their lodges or are moving safely beneath the ice, wolves rely more heavily on deer and hares. Wolves' summer diets are more diverse, including a greater variety of small mammals. Studies also show that berries can actually comprise over half of a wolf's diet during mid-summer.
- Breeding Behavior
Wolves reach sexual maturity when they are two years old, but seldom breed until they are older. Typically the dominant pair in each pack breed. Thus, a pack generally only produces one litter each year, averaging five to six pups.
In Wisconsin, wolves breed in late winter (late January and February). The female delivers the pups two months later in a den she digs, but may sometimes choose a hollow log or abandoned beaver den instead. Wolf pups are born deaf and blind and weigh about 1 pound. They grow rapidly during the first three months, gaining about 3 pounds each week. Pups begin to see when two weeks old and can hear after three weeks. At this time they become very active and playful.
When about six weeks old, the pups are weaned and the adults begin to bring them meat. Adults eat the meat at a kill site often miles away from the pups, then return and regurgitate the food for the pups to eat. The hungry pups jump and nip at the adults' muzzles to stimulate regurgitation.
The pack abandons the den when the pups are six to eight weeks old. The female carries the pups in her mouth to the first of a series of rendezvous sites or nursery areas. These sites are the focus of the pack's social activities for the summer months and are usually near water.
By August, the pups wander up to two to three miles from the rendezvous sites and use them less often. The pack abandons the sites in September or October and the pups, now almost full-grown, follow the adults.
- Pack Behavior
Wolves are social animals, living in a family group or pack. In summer a Wisconsin pack usually consists of six to ten animals -- a breeding pair, pups from the previous year (yearlings) and the current year's pups. Throughout the summer and fall, mortality and dispersal remove wolves from packs such that the average pack size declines. In Wisconsin, average pack size is remarkably consistent across winters at around four wolves per pack. The breeding pair is in charge of the pack, raising the young, selecting denning and rendezvous sites, locating and capturing prey and maintaining and defending their territory.
A non-breeding wolf can attain breeding status by either staying with its natal pack and biding its time until it is able to attain breeding position within the pack, or it can disperse to try and locate a mate and establish its own pack in vacant territory. Both strategies involve risk; a bider may be out-competed by another wolf and never achieve dominance whereas dispersers face the risk of traveling great distances, as can be viewed by the animation below.
A pack's territory may cover 20-120 square miles, but average territory size in Wisconsin ranges between 50 to 60 square miles. Neighboring wolf packs may share a common border, but their territories seldom overlap more than a mile. A wolf that trespasses into another pack's territory risks being killed by that pack. Wolves mark their territory boundary with urine and feces. Howling also helps a pack alert other wolves to their presence and is also used to identify and reunite pack mates that may become separated within their large territory.
- Program Overview
The DNR monitors the wolf population year-round using a combination of methods:
- Winter track surveys: DNR staff and trained volunteers conduct mid-winter snow track surveys in areas with known or suspected wolf packs to collect data on wolf packs and numbers. Historically, this information was used to estimate a minimum number of wolves in the state and was critical for monitoring progress toward population recovery goals.
- Occupancy modeling: Since 2020, DNR staff have employed a statistical modeling approach known as occupancy modeling to estimate the total wolf population abundance in the state. This method uses data collected during winter track surveys along with information from GPS collared wolves to estimate the total area occupied by wolf packs and the corresponding population estimate. This methodology has been used in western states for years. Our model was developed in Wisconsin, for Wisconsin and has shown to be and accurate and efficient way to monitor our wolf population.
- GPS collars: Data from collared wolves allow biologists to estimated wolf pack territory size and improve our understanding of wolf movements. Long-term, these data also allow estimates of wolf survival.
- Public observations: Reported wolf observations by the public, especially outside area currently occupied by wolves, help biologists identify packs in "new" parts of the state and better define wolf distribution.
- Depredations & wolf mortalities: Biologists monitor wolf depredations of livestock, pets and hunting dogs, as well as wolves that are found dead. This information contributes to our understanding of wolf distribution in the state.
- Volunteer Tracking Program
Carnivores are often secretive and occupy very large home ranges, making it difficult to monitor them by direct observation. However, we can still estimate the abundance and distribution of carnivores by observing the number and location of their tracks. In 1979, the DNR began conducting formal wolf track surveys as part of the state wolf monitoring program, and volunteers have contributed to these surveys since 1995.
- Survey Blocks
The state has been divided up into survey blocks where wolves and other carnivores are likely to occur. There may be a block in your area or where you visit often.
Each trained tracker is assigned a survey block of about 200 square miles. The survey block is designated by a system of roads or natural boundaries such as lakes and rivers. Not all portions of the survey block will contain suitable habitat for forest carnivores. The tracker is responsible for surveying the forested areas of his or her block for forest carnivores. Surveys are conducted by slowly driving the survey block one to three days after fresh snowfalls. All recent sets of tracks of medium and large forest carnivores are recorded along these snow-covered roads.
Use the drop-down menu to open a survey block map (PDF).
- Carnivore Tracker Forms
Forms are available as online forms or PDF
- Carnivore track survey (1700-052) - use this form to monitor and report carnivore tracking activities for each survey event.
- Carnivore tracking annual survey summary (1700-053) - use this form to summarize and report carnivore tracking activities for the year.
- Wolf track annual survey summary (1700-054) - use this form to report wolf survey summaries for the year.
- Suspected wolf tracks discriminant analysis (1700-055) - use this form to report suspected wolf track findings for analysis.
- DNR tracking survey guidelines
- Become a Tracker
Help monitor Wisconsin's wolf population by conducting winter track surveys!
To participate you will be expected to:
- Attend a wolf ecology course sponsored by the DNR, Timber Wolf Alliance or Timber Wolf Information Network;
- Attend a track training course sponsored by the DNR
- Take a mammal track test;
- agree to complete three surveys following DNR guidelines and submit your findings.
Data received from this program is used to supplement DNR surveys and provide the public with an opportunity to be involved in determining the status of our wolf population.
To see the most recent wolf monitoring reports check out the "Reports" tab above.
For more information on the Volunteer Tracking program contact:
Tracking Program Manager
Although wolves are an important part of the ecosystem, conflicts with humans are inevitable and additional measures to abate damages are sometimes necessary. The DNR collaborates with USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services to investigate reported conflicts with wolves and implement adaptive abatement measures. Furthermore, the department also offers compensatory reimbursements to those who have experienced verified loss through the Wildlife Damage Program.
- What to do if you suspect a wolf depredation:
- Immediately contact USDA-Wildlife Services to conduct an investigation. Phone lines are monitored seven days a week so it is important to leave a message if no one answers the phone;
- Provide as much detail as possible;
- Do not move or unnecessarily handle a carcass;
- Preserve any evidence at the kill site by covering any carcass with a tarp or other covering to discourage scavengers and preserve any tracks, scat, blood or bone fragments;
- Reduce any unnecessary human activity near the depredation site.
Wolf Advisory Committee
The Wolf Advisory Committee, a diverse group representing government agencies, non-governmental organizations, tribal interests and conservation groups, meets to discuss issues relating to wolf management. The committee advises the Wildlife Leadership Team on a variety of topics such as hunting regulations, conflict management, surveys and research priorities.
Committee meeting information
The Wolf Advisory Committee has not convened since management authority of wolves was reverted back to the federal government in early 2015.
- 2020 Wolf Monitoring Report
- 2020 Wolf Count Pack Details
- 2019 Wolf Monitoring Report
- 2018 Wolf Monitoring Report
- 2017 Wolf Monitoring Report
To obtain historical monitoring reports contact:
Large Carnivore Specialist
Harvest Season Reports
- Wisconsin Wolf Season Report 2021
- Wisconsin Wolf Season Report 2014
- Wisconsin Wolf Season Report 2013
- Wisconsin Wolf Season Report 2012
- Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan (1999, with 2007 addendum)
- Wolf Depredation Plan (2014)
- USFWS Recovery Plan for the Eastern Timber Wolf (1992)